Allegory Comparison Chart

Directions: Orwell's novel Animal Farm is an allegory, as we discussed. While on the surface level, it is about pigs and other animals and their revolt against human masters on their farm, there is another symboloic level in which almost all characters and scenes symbolize true figures and events from the communist era in Russia/ USSR (or at least Orwell's perspective of them), beginning with the Russian Revolution up through the end of WWII. The goal is to individually research one assigned individual, group or event from the novel, and then post in the allotted space in the chart below your explanation of the similarity between the item from the novel and what you learn about Russian history. Please visit the link here entitled "Allegory Webquest" to access suggested websites for researching your assigned topic.
Russian Revolution/ Soviet Communism
Animal Farm Character/ Event
Look up “Czar Nicholas II” and list some characteristics of him during his reign. How, why and when did his reign end?

Czar Nicholas II abdicated his throne on March 15th, 1917. He abdicated because the people of Russia were protesting to get him down from his throne. This is because he took the advice and befriended the Mad Monk, Rasputin. By abdicating the throne, he ended the 300- year Romanov dynasty of Czars. He honored Rasputin because he saved the life of his child Alexei who suffered from Hemophilia.
Which character most resembles Czar Nicholas II? What are the similarities?

We think that Snowball and Jones represent the Czar Nicholas II. They were both forced out of their throne by their people because of something that they did, that the people didn't like. We are unclear as to who exactly that they represent because they both have this similarity. Both Snowball and Jones were good people and they did good things, as was Czar Nicholas II.
Karl Marx is often credited as the Father of Communism. Why? What did he do? And what are the central communist beliefs/goals?

Karl Marx is called the Father of Communism because he a historian, a communist, a economist, a philosopher and many more. He believed that socialism would replace capitalism and it would lead to pure communism
. Marx believed that capitalism would lead to "internal tensions," which would then end up in destruction. Just as capitalism replaced feudalism, he thought socialism would replace capitalism, which would then lead to a problem-less society led on by pure communism.
Which character most resembles Karl Marx, and in what way does Animalism resemble communism?


We think that Karl Marx represents Old Major. This is because Karl Marx and Old Major both started a revolution, or the spread of a new idea. Old Major spread the idea of animalism and Karl Marx spread the ideas of communism. Animalism is similar to communism because they both have the same common idea of the people controlling the government instead of a higher figure and everyone is equal.

Look up “Vladimir Lenin.” Who was he, and what was his role in the Russian Revolution?

During the Russian Civil War, Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks were the Communist Party in Russia. The Bolsheviks were trying to gain control in Russia and turn it into a communist country. On December 7th 1895, he was sent to jail for plotting against the Czar.

Which character most closely resembles Lenin? Why?

Vladimir Lenin reminds us of Old Major from the book, "Animal Farm." In both situations each person helped to bring about the idea of communism or in the book's case "animialism." Animalism and communism are alike because they both involve people or animals being equal. Lenin was the leader and so was Old Major. Lenin being sent to jail reminds us of Old Major dying because they are both not seen.

Look up “Leon Trotsky.” Who was he, and what was his leadership role in the Russian Revolution? Why did he leave Russia?

Trotsky was a leader of the Russian Revolution along with Lenin and was a Bolshevik and Marxist theorist. He failed at leading the Left Opposition againstt the policies and rise of Joseph Stalin in the 1920s. Trotsky was sent to Siberia after being arrested for revolutionary activity and after four years in captivity, he escaped and made his way to London.
Which character most resembles Leon Trotsky? How? What are the similarities?

Snowball most resembles Leon Trotsky because Trotsky was an early leader in communism, like Snowball was an early leader in Animalism. Snowball was a leader in the Battle of Cowshed, and Trotsky was a true follower of Marx. Lastly, Trotsky was chased away by Stalin and the KGB after a power struggle and murdered in Mexico. Snowball was also chased away by Napolean's dogs and blamed for all problems on the farm.
Look up the “February Revolution.” What were the major events and outcomes marking this phase of the Russian Revolution?

What happened in the February Revolution was that March 8-12 1917, the people of Russia revolted and Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown. He was replaced by Prince Georgy Lvov, who a few days later replaced by Alexander Kerensky. This revolution occurred somewhat spontaneously, without much prior planning. The result of this was that the Tsar was overthrown, and this was the end of the Romanov line and Tsarism in Russia.

Which events in the novel might symbolize this February Revolution? Describe similarities.

We think that the original rebellion battle was similar to the February Revolution. There are many similarities, like the fact that it was one of two 'rebellions'. (the second one in animal farm was the Battle of the Cowshed) Also, Prince Georgy Lvov represented Old Major, who was later replaced by Kerensky, who represents Napoleon in this case. It says that there was little prior planning for the February Revolution, and the same can be said for Jones' Overthrowing. The result for both revolutions was that their leader was overthrown, and a new revolutionary leader got to run the place.

The communist government in Russia used a lot of propaganda such as Pravda. Read through the information at this site and make notes on key ideas in the space below:
http://www.pbs.org/redfiles/prop/inv/prop_inv_ins.htm

When the Bolshevik party came to power in Russia, much propaganda came with it. These came in many forms, like leaflets, slogans, songs, and speeches. The leaders of the Bolsheviks acted as journalists, as well as other workers in communication. It was almost like the underground railroad; people smuggling tissue-thin newspapers into Russia, as well as revolutionary ideas. 'Bread, Peace, and Land' was a common slogan for the Bolsheviks. Soon, however, these forms of communist propaganda turned from happy to more unhappy.

Which character delivers messages to Animal Farm that serve as exaggerations of the communist propaganda? What are the similarities?

A character that delivers propaganda similar to the Bolshevik party is Napoleon. The way he 'smuggles' them, unseen from Jones, is similar to Lenin. He too has simple slogans, like Bread, Peace, and Land. (In his case, Four Legs Good, Two Legs Bad.) Another way it is similar is to the Bolshevik propaganda is that when Lenin was still vouching for power, the ideas seemed great and appealing, but the more powerful Lenin got, the more that the propaganda turned and seemed...less appealing.

Look up Joseph Stalin. How did he come to power? How did he rule? What were his major goals for Russia?

Joseph Stalin was the shadow of Lenin. His goals were the same as Lenin's. But once he became in power, everything changed. Stalin then decided that they shouldn't go forward in development because it'll ruin the country. Some of his goals were he then decided to make two classes. These two classes were the workers and the peasantry.
How does Napoleon the pig possibly represent Stalin? Also, look up the name Napoleon Bonaparte—what characteristics does the pig share with this other leader as well?

Napoleon represents Stalin because he acted the same way. He was telling everyone that he was going to continue the ideas of Lenin (Old Major). But instead he takes advantage of power and overdoes it. Something that is important is the way both the Napoleons lead. They were leaders of war. Once war struck, Napoleon was the first to lead the animals.
Look up “Russian secret police” or browse through this article and take notes answering what tactics these police forces used in protecting the communist/socialist government:
**http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/secr.html**

The Russian Secret Police were not the nicest of people. They used many methods that were not pleasent. These methods ore tactics to use against the people who did not agree with the govenrment. These tactics include torture, kidnapping, coercive interrigation, internal exile, forced dissapearence, and assination.
Which character or group of characters in the novel most closely resembles the secret police, and what are the similarities?

The group in the book Animal Farm that resembles the Russian secret police, are the blood thirsty dogs that follow Napoleon or Joseph Stalin around. The similarites between the dogs and the Russian Secret Police are that both the groups executed anyone who was against the government. The dogs also did intimidate the animals with the way the dogs acted vicious. The dogs very much represent the Russian Seceret Police.
Lenin and Marx both felt that religion could be abused to mislead people. Read the opening paragraphs at the following link and take some notes below: **http://ancientdays.net/opiate.htm**
Lenin and Marx thought that since the Czar controlled the Church, then he could use that power over people's spiritual lives, to convice people to do things for his benefit. In response to this, they both created Atheism and Communism; to prevent the Czar or anyone else from possibly straying Russia any further.
The only character in the novel with a religious name is “Moses” the raven. What promises does he make the animals, and how might they symbolize religion of the type Lenin and Marx warned against?
Moses the raven keeps talking about 'Sugarcandy Mountain', and how you can only visit there if you die. Napoleon saw this as a threat to his farm, because the raven was on Jones' side. (And if Jones = Czar, then Moses = Rasputin.) Therefore, anything that comes out of Moses' beak could've been spoken by the Czar first.
(I'm sorry I deleted the last question. It had something to do with "What was the October Revolution in Russia? Put information below. I'm so sorry, Katie D.)


The October Revolution was the Russian Revolution in 1917. It all started when the workers found out that production was down 36%. There was mass unemployment, and Russia was majorly in debt. Strikes began in massive amounts and uproars from the peasants against landowners. Military force was used to quiet the protests and many were killed and wounded. Still the uproars continued and the people were demanding the power to be transfered from the Provisional Government to the Soviets. The Provisional Government stayed in power through all of the chaous.

What event in the novel probably symbolizes this final phase of the revolution that sealed the Bolshevik power?
The Battle of the Cowshed because they were ready. They expeled Jones for good and had thier power.
Look up Stalin’s five-year plans, and note their major goals and consequences in the space below:


Stalins five year plan was based on the development of iron, steel, machine tools, electric power, and transport. The plan although being supposed to help, ended up killing a bunch of farm animals. Because the farm animals were killed it ended up having many people killed in other countries because the Russians could not feed them. Famine broke out in many different districts due to all the disruption in farming and agriculture. It was so bad that the agriculture didn't recover until after World War 2.

How do Napoleon’s two-year plans to build the windmill resemble Stalin’s plans? What might the windmill represent?

They resemble each other, because one person thought they were a great idea, and pushed to have them done. Also they resemble each other in the way that they both didn't up helping but it ended up hurting the place where they lived. Both of the plans ended up failing and being a waste of time. The windmill might represent the killed animals, because, that was the costly mistake in the plan. It hurt the animals, and it ended up being a loss in the end because after the Russians didn't have any animals, and the animals ended up with no windmill after awhile.

Look up the Great Purge. Describe this series of events under Stalin’s reign:

Stalin, "The Man of Steel", created a complete dictatorship in Russia during his reign. To eliminate all his competition, Stalin carried out a purge of the Red Army as well as a purge of the communist party in the 1930's. He claimed he had evidence that a military coup was being planned, that was his excuse. All "enemies of the people" were killed. The police were extremely violent, executing thousands in a couple of days.

What event in the novel represents the Great Purge, and what are the similarities?

The time in which Napoleon was killing the people that confessed to be in alliance with Snowball relates to the Great Purge. This relates to the Great Purge in ways because Stalin was killing all "enemies of the people". Napoleon was killing all the animals in alliance with snowball. In other words, the enemies of the people.

What pact did Hitler form with Stalin during WWII? Name and describe it below:

Stalin and Hitler signed a non-aggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939. The pact declared that after the Germany invasion then Russia would receive areas of Poland that they didn’t already have.

Which character from which farm in the novel most likely symbolizes Hitler, and what “deal” or pact did this character make with Napoleon?
Mr. Pilkington most symbolizes Hitler because he made a pact with Napoleon saying he would give him money for his lumber but then ended up breaking the deal.
How did Hitler ultimately break or betray this pact with Stalin?
Hitler betrayed the pact by making the pact and never intending to keep it. He waited for them to trust him and then he attacked Russia.
Similarly, how did this character break the pact he formed with Napoleon?
He broke the pact by not giving Animal Farm the money he had promised for their lumber and then he attacked animal farm like Hitler attacked Russia.
What was the relationship between Russia and Britain (under Winston Churchill’s leadership) and the US (under Franklin Delanoe Roosevelt)?
**http://www.2worldwar2.com/leaders.htm**

What character or farm from the novel might represent Britain and/or the US, and why?